Mozambique

Mozambique lies on the east coast of Southern Africa, measuring a total of some 799,380 km² in area. The country borders the United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Swaziland. The country’s extensive coastline stretches 2,515 km along the south east and east coast of Africa. The Zambezi and Limpopo rivers, two of Africa’s major rivers, flow through Mozambique to the Indian Ocean. There are a number of islands on the coast including the Quirimba Archipelago in the region of Cabo Delgado, Mozambique Island in Nampula province, Chiloane Island in Sofala, the Bazaruto Archipelago in Inhambane and Inhaca Island in Maputo province.

The climate varies from subtropical to tropical (south to north) and is influenced by the monsoons of the Indian Ocean and by the warm current of the Mozambique Channel. Temperatures range from 13 to 24 degrees Celsius during the dry season, which is May to September, and from 22 to 31 degrees Celsius during the wet season, namely October to April. The central and southern provinces are prone to severe drought, devastating cyclones and floods.

The total population is approximately 20,579,265 (latest census). There are many different ethnic groups in Mozambique, the largest being the Makua-Lomwe, which accounts for around 40 % of the population, with others including the Shona and the Tsonga. The official and business language is Portuguese. English is widely spoken in business and academic circles, especially in Maputo. Local languages include Emakua, Shangane, Bitanga, Xitswa, Chope, Ronga, Elomwe, Chuabo, Sena, Shona, Ndau, Nyandja, Kimwani and Chimakonde. Maputo is the capital of Mozambique, and other major population centres includes Beira, the second largest city, which also acts as the business and transport hub for the central region of the country. Mozambique became independent on 25 June, 1975 and the first multi-party elections were held in 1994, and the president is the Head of State.

Agriculture is the backbone of the economy providing employment for over 75 % of the workforce and contributing an estimated 26.2 % to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2005. The cash and export crops include sugarcane, cotton, tea and tobacco. The fisheries sector is also another major source of foreign exchange earnings, accounting for around 2 % of the GDP in 2004. Mozambique’s industrial sector has main manufacturing operations including light engineering, food industries, textiles, brewing, soft drinks, cement, oils, soaps and chemicals. The industrial sector’s contribution to GDP in 2005 was estimated at 34.8 %.

Mozambique has several tourist attraction areas such as the 2,515 km of Indian Ocean coastline dotted with sandy beaches and clear water, colonial hotels, an abundance of some of the world’s most exquisite seafood, as well as an interior with beautiful scenery and wildlife. Beach tourism has expanded along the southern coast, including the islands of the environmentally unique Bazaruto Archipelago in Inhambane province. Other major tourist attractions include the Ibo Islands and the city of Pemba in the north of the country. Mozambique Island, also in the north, is a major historical and cultural attraction reflecting indigenous African culture and architecture as well as Arab and Portuguese influences.

Improved Land and Air Access

Tourism offers the best potential for developing a sustainable local economy and growing the gross domestic product of the GLTFCA region.  To realise the tourism potential, facilities need to operate at minimum sustained occupancies to be viable. This is best achieved when the right policy environment helps reduce risk. To extract value, investment is required in facilities, skills and marketing. A well-known destination and a brand make it easier to achieve viability.  

GLTFCA Signage Manual and Implementation Plan

As part of the marketing of GLTFCA, the JMB resolved to erect signage at strategic entrance gates in the three partner countries, which informs tourists that they are entering the TFCA. 

Development of GLTFCA Transboundary Tourism Strategic Framework

The Strategic Strategy Framework is intended to guide and coordinate the development of sustainable transboundary tourism, and to facilitate the removal of barriers to tourism development, investment promotion and growth in the GLTFCA region. Cognisant of the COVID-19 pandemic impact on tourism to and within the destination, the Transboundary Tourism Development document must also include recovery strategies for implementation at GLTFCA regional level.

Formalisation of the Muange Private Nature Reserve

The formalisation of Muange Private Nature Reserve will be based on the Greater Libombos Conservancy (GLC) model and will include the following key activities: (1) Establishment of single legal entity; (2) Development of Joint Management Framework/Plan; (3) Drafting of security plan; (4) Sign MoU between ANAC & Muange Private Nature Reserve; and (5) Following the above, establish Gonarezhou National Park / Muange Joint Park Management Committee.

Development of Limpopo National Park / Greater Libombos Conservancy / Kruger National Park Joint Security Plan

The main objective of the proposed assignment is to develop a Joint Security Plan for the GLTFCA more specifically for the southern part of the GLTFCA in order to: 
(1) Provide for more effective and efficient joint operations to mitigate wildlife crime; and 
(2) Determine current and future financial and human resource capacity needs to support ongoing joint operations.

Proposed Development of Wildlife Poisoning Mitigation Strategy

Development of GLTFCA Wildlife Poisoning Mitigation Strategy based on the findings of the GLTFCA Baseline Study.

GLTFCA Partners Forum

The JMB has also embarked on a process to facilitate the re-establishment of the GLTFCA Secretariat. The first phase of the process was to design for the form and function of the proposed GLTFCA Secretariat through an extensive stakeholder consultation process. At the macro-level, stakeholders identified three key, interconnected areas of delegated authority and autonomy whereby the Secretariat could enable and catalyse significant progress towards the identified strategic outcomes of the GLTFCA.

Development of GLTFCA Fence Strategy

The development of the proposed strategy will take into consideration the following factors: 

  1. Safety and Security issues, including current surge in wildlife crime;
  2. Veterinary issues, including disease control and management;
  3. Development of wildlife corridors; and
  4. Support of alternative livelihoods / livelihoods diversification programmes.

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