Mozambique lies on the east coast of Southern Africa, measuring a total of some 799,380 km² in area. The country borders the United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Swaziland. The country’s extensive coastline stretches 2,515 km along the south east and east coast of Africa. The Zambezi and Limpopo rivers, two of Africa’s major rivers, flow through Mozambique to the Indian Ocean. There are a number of islands on the coast including the Quirimba Archipelago in the region of Cabo Delgado, Mozambique Island in Nampula province, Chiloane Island in Sofala, the Bazaruto Archipelago in Inhambane and Inhaca Island in Maputo province.

The climate varies from subtropical to tropical (south to north) and is influenced by the monsoons of the Indian Ocean and by the warm current of the Mozambique Channel. Temperatures range from 13 to 24 degrees Celsius during the dry season, which is May to September, and from 22 to 31 degrees Celsius during the wet season, namely October to April. The central and southern provinces are prone to severe drought, devastating cyclones and floods.

The total population is approximately 20,579,265 (latest census). There are many different ethnic groups in Mozambique, the largest being the Makua-Lomwe, which accounts for around 40 % of the population, with others including the Shona and the Tsonga. The official and business language is Portuguese. English is widely spoken in business and academic circles, especially in Maputo. Local languages include Emakua, Shangane, Bitanga, Xitswa, Chope, Ronga, Elomwe, Chuabo, Sena, Shona, Ndau, Nyandja, Kimwani and Chimakonde. Maputo is the capital of Mozambique, and other major population centres includes Beira, the second largest city, which also acts as the business and transport hub for the central region of the country. Mozambique became independent on 25 June, 1975 and the first multi-party elections were held in 1994, and the president is the Head of State.

Agriculture is the backbone of the economy providing employment for over 75 % of the workforce and contributing an estimated 26.2 % to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2005. The cash and export crops include sugarcane, cotton, tea and tobacco. The fisheries sector is also another major source of foreign exchange earnings, accounting for around 2 % of the GDP in 2004. Mozambique’s industrial sector has main manufacturing operations including light engineering, food industries, textiles, brewing, soft drinks, cement, oils, soaps and chemicals. The industrial sector’s contribution to GDP in 2005 was estimated at 34.8 %.

Mozambique has several tourist attraction areas such as the 2,515 km of Indian Ocean coastline dotted with sandy beaches and clear water, colonial hotels, an abundance of some of the world’s most exquisite seafood, as well as an interior with beautiful scenery and wildlife. Beach tourism has expanded along the southern coast, including the islands of the environmentally unique Bazaruto Archipelago in Inhambane province. Other major tourist attractions include the Ibo Islands and the city of Pemba in the north of the country. Mozambique Island, also in the north, is a major historical and cultural attraction reflecting indigenous African culture and architecture as well as Arab and Portuguese influences.

Biodiversity Conservation and Community Development Project

The project has four operational components:
(1) improve knowledge and protect the ACC's natural and cultural heritage;
(2) strengthen the land rights of local communities, a prerequisite for better land and natural resource management;
(3) increase the amount placed on the market and increase the income of local communities;
(4) support the implementation of pilot schemes and initiatives to mobilize private sector funding for biodiversity conservation.

Learning and Knowledge Exchange Programme

The JMB has embarked on a process to support the development of a GLTFCA Learning and Exchange Programme. In order to support this GLTFCA initiative, the JMB submitted a proposal to the GIZ funded SADC TFCA Learning Partnership Micro Fund in March 2017 and the proposal was accepted. The inaugural learning and exchange visit took place from 5 to 9 August 2019 in Gonarezhou National Park.  Approximately 5 delegates from each one of the GLTFCA Partner Countries participated in this event.

Massingir Dam Resource Use Plan

The Resilient Waters Programme has agreed to fund the Massingir Resource Use & Zonation Plan, which will be followed by the development of a similar plan for the Corumane Dam (in the Sabie River). The general objective of this initiative is to facilitate stakeholder involvement in the production of  the Massingir Dam Master Plan including a zonation and use plan, classification of the dam and the establishment the Dam Management Support Committee.

Integrated Water Resource and Freshwater Management Strategy

The JMB has initiated a process to develop a Transboundary Freshwater Resource Management Strategy for the GLTFCA. The rationale is therefore to build on present momentum of recent river management successes through Integrated Water Resource Management and expand the systemic approach of aquatic ecosystem conservation to the entire scale of the GLTFCA. Immediate benefits of this approach are the delivery of resilient transboundary outcomes.

Rhino Protection Programme

The project works closely with the South African government and its conservation management authorities, South African National Parks (SANParks) and Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife (Ezemvelo), as well as with Mozambique’s National Administration for Conservation Areas, to develop and implement practical, well-considered methods through which to address issues at various critical points along the so-called ‘poaching supply chain’, namely Protected area enforcement support, investigations and disruption of trafficking supply chains, and demand management within the consumer countries. 

“Hlawula Vutomi” Youth Programme

During discussions between Mozambique and South Africa regarding joint initiatives to address the escalating wildlife crime problem, it was suggested that specific interventions should be focused on the youth of the two countries.  It was further suggested that a youth awareness programme be developed as part of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Areas (GLTFCA) initiative.  The aim of this programme would be to develop interventions specifically designed to create awareness amongst the youth on the value of the natural heritage of the two countries.

Isivivane Anti-Poaching Toolbox

The project will focus on collecting this knowledge from the network of partners involved with joint law enforcement within the GLTP. Using this, it will develop a secure, centralized online anti-poaching toolbox to house and disseminate it.

GLTFCA Joint Security initiative

The project aims to disrupt transnational crime within the GLTP through the standardisation of Joint law enforcement by developing complementary law enforcement plans, facilitating joint law enforcement engagement between law enforcement agencies and boost key capability gaps.

Implementation of Integrated Livelihoods Diversification Strategy

The JMB has developed an Integrated Livelihoods Diversification Strategy with the support of the then USAID funded RESILIM (Resilience in the Limpopo River Basin Program) Programme and PPF. The main outputs of the Strategy development process included the following: 

Packaging of Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area tourism offerings

The Great Limpopo TFCA requires marketing and investment promotion interventions that go beyond conventional marketing, towards market development which focuses on both supply and demand sides, and that adds value to the tourism experience in a manner that expands the benefits of tourism to more than one country. This approach is intended to complement individual Partner Country efforts, while diversifying SADC’s tourism offerings through capitalising on the region’s natural and cultural heritage assets and contributing to socio-economic growth.